First off, the nature of Jesus (ppuh) is a wonder. A man that has no father. He is compared to the first human in creation, Adam. The devil could not come near him for he was always under the protection of the Angel Gabriel. Even:
The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “When any human being is born. Satan touches him at both sides of the body with his two fingers, except Jesus, the son of Mary, whom Satan tried to touch but failed, for he touched the placenta-cover instead.”
Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book of Beginning of Creation, Vol. 4, Book 54, Hadith 506.
And contrary to all humans (as far as we know, and Allah knows best), he did not die; he was elevated to heaven and he will return, as a miracle, before the end of time to kill the Antichrist.
And indeed, Jesus will be [a sign for] knowledge of the Hour, so be not in doubt of it, and follow Me. This is a straight path.
Surah Az-Zukhruf (43 – 61)
Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, son of Mary (Jesus) will shortly descend amongst you people (Muslims) as a just ruler and will break the Cross and kill the pig and abolish the Jizya (a tax taken from the non-Muslims, who are in the protection, of the Muslim government). Then there will be abundance of money and nobody will accept charitable gifts.
Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book of Sales and Trade, Vol. 3, Book 34, Hadith 425.
As for the trials he had to endure, just as Moses, they were mainly inflicted by his own people. They called his mother, the Virgin Mary, the opposite of a virgin; the called him a bastard, they belied him, and they plotted to kill him just as they did to his second cousin, John (Yahya).
Yet he left a legacy for those who followed him in true Islamic monotheism and paved the way for the coming of the last messenger of Allah. As for those who did not believe in him (Jews) and those who adored him (most Christians) will have to deal with this:
And there is none from the People of the Scripture but that he will surely believe in Jesus before his death. And on the Day of Resurrection he will be against them a witness.
Surah An-Nisa (4 – 159)
Now, as it goes for Jesus (ppuh) himself, Jesus is a Messenger, a Prophet, a man; not a God, the son of God, or the holy spirit. The idea of the trinity is a misconception derived from a hybrid of roman religion and what Jesus was characterized to be:
O People of the Scripture, do not commit excess in your religion or say about Allah except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was but a messenger of Allah and His word which He directed to Mary and a soul [created at a command] from Him. So believe in Allah and His messengers. And do not say, “Three”; desist – it is better for you. Indeed, Allah is but one God. Exalted is He above having a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And sufficient is Allah as Disposer of affairs.
Surah Al-Nisa (4 – 171)
Jesus is thus a Messenger (man), a word (be it and it shall be), and a soul (given from Allah). Just like a soul given to Adam
Indeed, the example of Jesus to Allah is like that of Adam. He created Him from dust; then He said to him, “Be,” and he was.
Surah Ala-Imran (3 – 59)
If Adam is man, only man, created from clay, with no father or mother, why is he only considered to be the first human being and not at the same level or a higher level than Jesus, why isn’t he an older brother, or the son of God himself?
Adam was man, just as Jesus was man, they were of flesh and blood and walked among mankind. The Virgin Mary was no different; she was human just like all other humans before her. They lived, slept, ate, drank and…
The Messiah, son of Mary, was not but a messenger; [other] messengers have passed on before him. And his mother was a supporter of truth. They both used to eat food. Look how We make clear to them the signs; then look how they are deluded.
Surah al-Maidah (5 – 75)
I mean, just the fact that they ate negates their divine status. Just follow the intestinal tract; and you end up somewhere far from being divine or perfect, i.e. human; so do not ignore this.
In the Quran Jesus said:
They have certainly disbelieved who say, ” Allah is the Messiah, the son of Mary” while the Messiah has said, “O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.” Indeed, he who associates others with Allah – Allah has forbidden him Paradise, and his refuge is the Fire. And there are not for the wrongdoers any helpers.
They have certainly disbelieved who say, ” Allah is the third of three.” And there is no god except one God. And if they do not desist from what they are saying, there will surely afflict the disbelievers among them a painful punishment.
Surah al-Maidah (5 – 72-73)
This is practically the same word found in the bible
“Do not cling to Me, for I have not yet ascended to My Father; but go to My brethren and say to them, ‘I am ascending to My Father and your Father, and to My God and your God.’ ”
John 20:17, New King James Version
How could someone even dare to claim or allege that Allah has an offspring?
They have said, ” Allah has taken a son.” Exalted is He; He is the [one] Free of need. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. You have no authority for this [claim]. Do you say about Allah that which you do not know?
Say, “Indeed, those who invent falsehood about Allah will not succeed.”
[For them is brief] enjoyment in this world; then to Us is their return; then We will make them taste the severe punishment because they used to disbelieve
Surah Yunus (10 – 68-70)
And to warn those who say, ” Allah has taken a son.”
They have no knowledge of it, nor had their fathers. Grave is the word that comes out of their mouths; they speak not except a lie.
Then perhaps you would kill yourself through grief over them, [O Muhammad], if they do not believe in this message, [and] out of sorrow.
Surah Al-Kahf (18 – 4-6)
It is insulting to Allah to compare him to anything; imagine giving him a son.
[He is] Originator of the heavens and the earth. How could He have a son when He does not have a companion and He created all things? And He is, of all things, Knowing.
Surah Al-Anam (6 – 101)
Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Allah the Most Superior said, “The son of Adam slights Me, and he should not slight Me, and he disbelieves in Me, and he ought not to do so. As for his slighting Me, it is that he says that I have a son; and his disbelief in Me is his statement that I shall not recreate him as I have created (him) before.”
Sahih al-Bukhari, Book of Beginning of Creation, Vol. 4, Book 54, Hadith 415.
And what could stop Allah’s anger to destroy what he wants if he wished
They have certainly disbelieved who say that Allah is Christ, the son of Mary. Say, “Then who could prevent Allah at all if He had intended to destroy Christ, the son of Mary, or his mother or everyone on the earth?” And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them. He creates what He wills, and Allah is over all things competent.
Surah al-Maidah (5 – 17)
And they say, “The Most Merciful has taken [for Himself] a son.”
You have done an atrocious thing.
The heavens almost rupture therefrom and the earth splits open and the mountains collapse in devastation
That they attribute to the Most Merciful a son.
And it is not appropriate for the Most Merciful that He should take a son.
There is no one in the heavens and earth but that he comes to the Most Merciful as a servant.
Surah Maryam (19 – 88-93)
It is not to say that Jesus had any part in this blasphemy. He is innocent of what has been said of him and his mother in regard to insults towards them (bastard and prostitute) or towards Allah (Jesus is the son of God).
And [beware the Day] when Allah will say, “O Jesus, Son of Mary, did you say to the people, ‘Take me and my mother as deities besides Allah ?'” He will say, “Exalted are You! It was not for me to say that to which I have no right. If I had said it, You would have known it. You know what is within myself, and I do not know what is within Yourself. Indeed, it is You who is Knower of the unseen.
I said not to them except what You commanded me – to worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. And I was a witness over them as long as I was among them; but when You took me up, You were the Observer over them, and You are, over all things, Witness.
If You should punish them – indeed they are Your servants; but if You forgive them – indeed it is You who is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
Surah al-Maidah (5 – 116-118)
On the other hand, it is not like Jesus or his mother Mary are to be disregarded. In Islam, Jesus is considered as one of the five Prophets that had a heavy load, i.e hard message to convey in difficult times (strong-willed messenger).
And [mention, O Muhammad], when We took from the prophets their covenant and from you and from Noah and Abraham and Moses and Jesus, the son of Mary; and We took from them a solemn covenant.
Surah Al-Ahzab (33 – 7)
As for his mother the Virgin Mary, she is the only woman mentioned by name in the Quran. She is mentioned as an example to follow by all Muslims.
And Allah presents an example of those who believed: the wife of Pharaoh, when she said, “My Lord, build for me near You a house in Paradise and save me from Pharaoh and his deeds and save me from the wrongdoing people.”
And [the example of] Mary, the daughter of ‘Imran, who guarded her chastity, so We blew into [her garment] through Our angel, and she believed in the words of her Lord and His scriptures and was of the devoutly obedient.
Surah At-Tahrim (66 – 11-12)
And [mention] when the angels said, “O Mary, indeed Allah has chosen you and purified you and chosen you above the women of the worlds.
Surah Ala-Imran (3 – 42)
that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Sufficient for you among the women of mankind are Mariam daughter of ‘Imran, Khadijah daughter of Khuwailid, Fatimah daughter of Muhammad and Asiyah the wife of Fir’awn (Pharaoh).”
Jami Al-Tirmidhi, Chapter of Virtues, Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3878.